:JAVA: - Java source dependency operator
:JAVA: operator has the format:
Java files to be built are specified by the right hand side arguments. There must be at least one right hand side argument. Each right hand side (RHS) argument specifies a pathname and may be one of the following types:
- Pathname of a java source file. Shell pathname expansion patterns such as
*.javawork as expected. This is typically, but not necessarily, a relative pathname.
- Pathname of a directory. This is equivalent to specifying the relative pathnames of all .java files which exist in the tree rooted at the specified directory. Shell pathname expansion is not supported for directories.
:JAVA: operator uses dependencies among .java and .class
files to insure that build steps run in the proper order, and that only
necessary build steps get run. These dependencies are automatically derived
from Java source files; furthermore, complex requirements of Java builds,
such as dependency cycles and implicit targets, are correctly handled.
However, to speed the development cycle this version of
does not by default automatically update the dependencies themselves each
time a build is run. If
javadeps=1 or no
$(LOCALJAVADEPS) file exists in the viewpath the dependencies
are automatically updated from source, otherwise the dependencies in
$(LOCALJAVADEPS)are used. The user is responsible for
updating the dependencies whenever Java source is changed in a way that
modifies the dependencies among .java and .class files.
For proper and consistent
:JAVA: operation, Java source files must be arranged in a
package hierarchy that mirrors their directory hierarchy. This is as
recommended on the
javac manual page. For example, if
$(VROOT)/javapkg, Java source
$(VROOT)/javapkg/com/lucent/src/pkg1/A.java must be declared
com.lucent.src.pkg1, typically through a declaration
:JAVA: checks for missing or inconsistent package statements
and issues a fatal error if any are found.
In order to speed up dependency maintenance, this version of
:JAVA: updates dependencies incrementally if possible. This
means that only source files whose modification time is changed since the
last run are rescanned for dependencies. Dependency information for other
files is reused from the last run.
Since commonly used Java compilers have a high startup overhead,
:JAVA: provides an optional feature (enabled by default) which
reduces the number of Java compiler invocations by batching calls to the
compiler. That is, instead of compiling Java files one by one as is normally
the case in nmake based builds,
:JAVA: arranges for Java
compilations to be queued, and only runs the compiler when the queue length
exceeds a threshold. This approach can dramatically reduce build times. The
maxjavac variable provides user control over this feature.
Due to cross-package dependencies, Java builds are best managed using a single top-level Makefile in the Java package root directory. This Makefile contains a global set of Java dependencies in all subpackages, ensuring that class files get rebuilt when necessary no matter which package they reside in. As a consequence, global and package local Java builds are organized differently from traditional C/C++ builds.
A global build is run from the package root directory and brings all
subordinate packages (as specified on the RHS of
:JAVA:) up to
date. The top-level Makefile knows all dependencies among Java and class
files in subordinate packages, detects out-of-date targets, and initiates all
compilations directly from the top level directory. This is unlike
traditional C/C++ builds, where the top-level Makefile merely recurses to
lower level directories, and actual compilations are performed by local
Makefiles located within each source directory. In the case of Java global
builds, local Makefiles are not used, and not needed.
The use of the top-level Makefile provides correct dependency management,
however, when developing inside a package, local Makefiles have some
advantages: they allow a build to be conveniently started without leaving
the local directory, and they allow specification of a subset of local
targets for update. To provide these conveniences while retaining the
benefits of global dependency management,
support for the safe use of local inside-package Makefiles. These local
Makefiles also use the
:JAVA: assertion to specify a local set
of Java source files to build. To actually perform a build,
:JAVA: collects the build targets (whether explicitly specified
or defaulted), changes to the package root directory (by default), and builds
the specified targets in the context of the global package dependencies. This
ensures that the minimal work will be performed to bring the specified local
targets up to date, but that other targets, including possibly files in other
packages, will be updated if required to bring the specified local targets up
to date. An example of a local package build is shown below. A locally issued
clobber will only remove generated files that are within the
By default, all builds (even builds initiated from local package
Makefiles) are performed at package root level. Builds at package root are
termed ``global'' builds since they can ``see'' all packages rooted at
$(JAVAPACKAGEROOT) and can take into account all dependencies
across packages, even when updating only a local subset of project class
files. In some circumstances, it may be desirable to actually perform the
build at a lower package level. This truly local build can only manage class
files dependencies within the package level or below, but may be more
efficient since fewer class files are involved. Use the
JAVABUILDDIR variable to specify a local build execution
directory. To build within the current directory only, set
intermediate directory levels between
JAVAPACKAGEROOT is also possible. The build execution directory
must have a
Several user-settable nmake variables influence the behavior of the
:JAVA: operator. The
JAVAPACKAGEROOT variable has
no default and must be defined:
- Package root directory for Java source files. Typically specified in a global Makefile in the form
$(VROOT)/<java-root-offset>. As discussed previously, each Java source file offset relative to
JAVAPACKAGEROOTmust be consistent with its Java package name. The top-level global build is performed at
All other variables are optional. The following variables specify the locations of files and commands used:
- Java class search path, as used by
$(JAVAC). Within a Makefile,
- Location of file containing Java dependency data. Used for merging incremental dependency scans. Defaults to
globaljavadeps. This file is generated automatically by
- Build execution directory for inside-package local builds. Default is
$(JAVAPACKAGEROOT), meaning that builds are performed at package root level. This is the safest setting since it accounts for cross-package dependencies. To force build execution to be strictly local, set
.'. Use with caution, since with this setting prerequisite files in other packages will not be updated.
- Java compiler. Defaults to
- Java compiler flags. Defaults to null.
- Destination directory for class files, typically
$(VROOT)/<java-class-offset>. This sets the
-doption. Default is
- Makefile name in build execution directory, if that directory is different from the current directory. Defaults to
- Java source dependency scanner. This is an external tool used to extract dependency information from Java source files. Defaults to an external scanner which is known to produce dependency information in a format usable by nmake. Default is
- Pathname of directory where javadeps package may be found. Defaults to first directory that exists of
- Location of jdeps jar file. This file is required in order to run
$(JDEPS), and defaults appropriately to properly run the external scanner. Default is
- Location of file containing Java dependencies. Defaults to
localjavadeps. This file is generated automatically by
- Syntax configuration file for
$(JDEPS). Default is
The following variables provide fine control over the behavior of the :JAVA: operator:
- Maximum number of Java files to be compiled in a single call to
javadeps=1, force regeneration of Java file dependencies.
- Specify overrides for the messages emitted when ``recursing'' to the package root directory.
- Allow a convenient shorthand for target paths specified on the command line.
java_warp_targetspecifies an edit operation that selects local targets to be ``warped'' to their corresponding location under
JAVACLASSDEST. For example, if
N=*.classand we are in the source directory of package
com/stc/pkg1, saying `
nmake A.class' will actually build
The following special atoms are used:
-classpathcommand line option. Note that the meaning of this option changed between JDK1.1 and JDK1.2. One consequence is that the system library
class.zipmust be included in the
.SOURCE.classatom for JDK1.1, but not for JDK1.2.
- Directories to search for Java files.
<viewpath_root_dir>/ # $(VROOT) java/ # $(JAVAPACKAGEROOT) jglob.mk # global Makefile Makefile # top level Makefile com/ lucent/ stc/ pkg1/ Makefile # local Makefile A.java B.java pkg2/ C.java D.java E.java class/ # $(JAVACLASSDEST) com/ lucent/ stc/ pkg1/ pkg2/
Contents of <viewpath_root_dir>/java/jglob.mk. Note that
JAVAPACKAGEROOT has no default and must be
JAVAPACKAGEROOT=$(VROOT)/java JAVACLASSDEST=$(VROOT)/class .SOURCE.class: $(JAVACLASSDEST) /opt/exp/java/lib/classes.zip
Contents of top level Makefile
include $(VROOT)/java/jglob.mk :JAVA: com/lucent/stc/pkg1 com/lucent/stc/pkg2
Then a global build from directory
<viewpath_root_dir>/java generates all dependencies and
compiles all Java source files in packages 1 and 2:
$ nmake + /tools/nmake/javadeps-lu2.0.2/jdeps /tools/nmake/javadeps-lu2.0.2/jdeps.jar -C JAVACLASSES -n --vpath=/home/gms/wrk/nmake/java/phase2/userman/java --silent -s /tools/nmake/javadeps-lu2.0.2/synconfig -o localjavadeps -d ../class --classpath=../class:/opt/exp/java/lib/classes.zip com/lucent/stc/pkg1/A.java com/lucent/stc/pkg1/B.java com/lucent/stc/pkg2/C.java com/lucent/stc/pkg2/D.java com/lucent/stc/pkg2/E.java + /opt/exp/bin/javac -O -d ../class -classpath .:../class:/opt/exp/java/lib/classes.zip com/lucent/stc/pkg2/D.java com/lucent/stc/pkg1/B.java com/lucent/stc/pkg2/C.java com/lucent/stc/pkg2/E.java com/lucent/stc/pkg1/A.java
In this case, the following
:JAVA: assertion has the same
To force dependency regeneration in addition to updating the .class files, run
As described previously, the global build is totally managed by
<viewpath_root_dir>/java/Makefile, no recursive makes are
Continuing the above example, suppose we now want to work within a
an example of a package local Makefile:
include $(VROOT)/java/jglob.mk :JAVA: C.java D.java E.java
The local package working directory is
<viewpath_root_dir>/java/com/lucent/stc/pkg2. From this
directory, a developer may edit the local Java files
E.java, and then run nmake:
<viewpath_root_dir>/java/com/lucent/stc/pkg2 $ touch D.java$ nmake + cd <viewpath_root_dir>/java + nmake javasdir=com/lucent/stc/pkg2 javarhs=C.java D.java E.java javaclassdest=../../../../../class javadeps=0 + /opt/exp/bin/javac -O -d ../class -classpath .:../class:/opt/exp/java/lib/classes.zip com/lucent/stc/pkg2/D.java com/lucent/stc/pkg1/B.java com/lucent/stc/pkg2/C.java com/lucent/stc/pkg2/E.java
As described previously, the specified targets are passed up the top level
Makefile, and the build is actually performed in
$(JAVAPACKAGEROOT). Note that due to the complex dependencies
of this example, a Java file from another package is brought up to date in
addition to files in the local package.
Setup and use of the Interix and UWIN-based versions of nmake is similar to usage on the UNIX® version. There are several rules to keep in mind:
VPATHmust also be in UNIX format. ':' is the path separator.
CLASSPATHmust be in Windows format because it is directly used by Java SDK for Windows. ';' is the path separator.
jar.mk, or any variant of these names differing only in case (
Java.mketc). Due to case insensitive filename conventions on Windows systems, these files will mask the system files that define :JAVA: and :JAR: leading to undefined operator errors. On UWIN with the case sensitive setting, java.mk and jar.mk are valid Makefile names.
$JAVAHOME/binshould be before
nmakecan not find
Several of these rules arise because the UWIN and Interix-based
nmake engines use UNIX file paths while the Windows-based Java
JDK uses Windows file paths. The implementation uses a wrapper program called
npwj which converts file paths from UNIX to Windows format.
npwj is also useful as an convenient helper utility for running
Windows-based Java SDK tools from the UWIN command line. See the
npwj manual page for more
There are several implementation issues:
/home/usernameoften maps to
"C:\Program Files\UWIN3.x\home\username"on Windows. Because the current Java support on UWIN does not support space in Windows pathnames, users are asked to work under directories that do not contain space in either the UNIX pathname or Windows pathname.
/home/usernameis usually not a valid choice. For the same reason,
javadepsshould also be installed in a directory which does not contain space in either UNIX or Windows pathnames. Directories containing spaces should also be avoided under Interix.
java.exeneeds to be specified in the
jdepsshell script. For an unknown reason, UWIN may fail to locate
$JAVAHOME/binis at the beginning of
.exesuffix may be required in order to find executables. For example, specify
javac.exerather than just
enumare treated as Java keywords, so may not be used for other purposes in Java source. This is in accordance with recent JDK releases (
assertwas introduced in JDK 1.4,
enumin JDK 1.5/J2SE 5.0).
Copyright 2004 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.
:JAVA: - Java source dependency operator
Release lu3.7 @(#)jman.html 220.127.116.11 10/15/04